This Frommer design appeared in 1912 and was adopted by the Honvédség, (incorrectly called 'Honvéd'), the Hungarian element of the Austro-Hungarian Army. It's designation was 'Frommer Stop', it had no model number. The international word 'Stop' meant 'to stop' the target. During WW1 the Frommer Stop pistols were also sold to Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey
The designation '19.M' (Model 19) was given after it was adapted 'again' in 1919 by the new independent Hungarian Army and official Hungarian documents indicate that this is the correct model designation. It subsequently became the official service pistol of the Hungarian army, police, gendarmerie and secret police. It remained in military and police hands until 1945, though theoretically, mostly in the Army, replaced by later models.
The Frommer Stop was a fresh approach to long recoil operation, the vital feature being a double spring system lying in a tunnel above the barrel. One spring controls the movement of the bolt, while its companion absorbs the barrel recoil and returns the barrel to the firing position. This two-spring system is implicit in any long recoil mechanism where barrel and bolt move independently. The springs surrounded the barrel and bolt in the M1901 Frommer design, but placing them in the M1910 Frommer-type tunnel (though complicating maintenance) made the gun much more compact. At the instant of firing, the Stop is locked by a rotating head on the two-piece bolt, similarly to the M95 Mannlicher rifles. An inertia firing pin is struck by an external hammer, and the only safety device is a grip lever. Barrel and bolt then recoil for about an inch to unlock the bolt. The bolt is then held while the barrel runs back, stripping out and ejecting the empty case as it does so. The bolt is then released to run forward, chamber the fresh round, and rotate its head to lock the breech.
It is a functional, but complicated design, required above average maintenance and was reportedly not popular with some of its users. However, with proper care the pistols' long service life proved its critics wrong and most people loved them. Critics saying 'The complication of a long recoil system is wasted on a relatively low-powered cartridge which can be handled by a simple blowback action' should check out the following section.
Original service pistols mostly chambered the 7.65mm Frommer cartridge (same dimensions as the .32acp, but loaded hot), some chambered the more powerful 9mm (.380acp). Note: The pistol was designed for the 'hotter', more powerful 7.65mm Frommer cartridge, so using standard .32acp is safe, but it may not result in a perfect operation. During the years popularity of the .32acp combined with the difficuties obtaining the original 7.65 Frommer cartridge lead to the common use of the .32acp in these pistols. This is the reason the use of .32acp 'stuck' with this pistol. It is also likely, that the exported 7.65 Frommers were commercially marketed as .32acp. Some unconfirmed reports indicate, that similarly to the 7.65 Frommer, the original 9mm Frommer was also a 'hot loaded' version of the .380 acp cartridge.
275,000 Manufactured by Fegyver és Gépgyár Részvénytársaság, Budapest, 1912-18.
90,000 Manufactured by Fémáru Fegyver és Gépgyár Részvénytársaság, Budapest, 1919-29.
Type: recoil operated automatic pistol
Chambering: 7.65mm Frommer (=.32acp loaded hot), 9mm (.380acp), 9mm Short
Overall length: 160mm [6.3"], height: 110mm [4.33"]
Max. thickness: 22mm [.87"]
Barrel: 100mm [3.94"] rifled, 4 grooves, right hand twist
Depth of grooves: 0.135mm [.0053"], Width of rifling: 3mm [.12"]
Weight with empty mag: 580g [20.5oz], Loaded: 634g [22.4oz]
Removable magazine capacity: 7 rounds
7.65 cal. Bullet weight: 4.65g, Shell weight: 2.85g, Powder weight: .23g
Muzzle velocity: 300m/s [987 fps] (7.65mm cartridge)
Max. penetration: 150mm [6"] thick pine board